The Young Patriots Organization was founded in 1968 in the Uptown neighborhood of Chicago by white southern migrants who modeled themselves after the Black Panther Party with whom they eventually formed a Rainbow Coalition. This project is in part inspired by their history. You can read more about it on their website and in the resources below. A similar organization grew up in Philadelphia known as October 4th Organization, while less is known about their work – some resources are presented below. Finally, an ongoing list of resources

The Young Patriots Organization

  1. YPO Documents on the YPO website
  2. Amy Sonnie and James Tracy, Hillbilly Nationalists, Urban Race Rebels, and Black Power: Community Organizing in Radical Times (Brooklyn: Melville House Publishing, 2011)
  3. Jakobi Williams, From the Bullet to the Ballot: The Illinois Chapter of the Black Panther Party and Racial Coalition Politics in Chicago (UNC Press, 2013)
  4. Against the “Ally Industrial Complex”: Re-visiting the Legacy of the Young Patriots and the Rainbow Coalition (2015)
  5. Chuck Armsbury with the Patriot Party (It’s about Time, 2002)
  6. Patrick King, Young Patriots and a statement from Preacherman, (Viewpoint Magazine, 2015)
  7. Walidah Imarisha, It Ain’t Just the Flag: “Accidental Racist” as White Liberal Fantasy 
  8. Baxter Barrowcliff , Young Patriots’ notes from the underground resurface (Columbia Chronicle, 2014)
  9. Barbara Joye, The Patriots (The Atlanta Bird, 1970)

Chicago’s Uptown – Further Reading:

  1. “New Lawrence Apartment Hotel,” Chicago Daily Tribune (Mar 26, 1929)
  2. Albert N. Votaw, “The Hillbillies Invade Chicago,” Harper’s Magazine 216:1293 (February 1958)
  3. Robert Fisher, Let the People Decide: Neighborhood Organizing in America (Boston: Twayne, 1984)
  4. Clarus Backes, “Poor People’s Power in Uptown,” Chicago Tribune (Sep 29, 1968)
  5. Roger Guy, From Unity to Diversity: Southern and Appalachian Migrants in Uptown, Chicago, 1950–1970 (Lexington Books, 2007).
  6. Robert Cross, “Uptown’s future: Are the swingers at the gates? Uptown Trend-setters discover the charms of Uptown,” Chicago Tribune (Sep 29, 1974)
  7. Robert Rehak, Uptown: Portrait of a Chicago Neighborhood in the mid-1970s (Chicago’s Books Press, First edition, 2013) See his web archive of photos.
  8. Alison Fisher, The Battle for Uptown, (AREA Chicago)
  9. Todd Gitlin & Nanci Hollander, Uptown: Poor Whites in Chicago (Harper & Row, New York, 1970)
  10. David Witter: Hillbilly Heaven: Chicago’s Other Migration from the South  (Newcity, 2012)
  11. Whet Moser, Chicago’s Hillbilly Problem, Chicago Magazine 2012 

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